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We do it primarily based on the pitch of the voice. But the pitch alone is not sufficient, because its ranges for males and females overlap substantially: 80 to 200 Hz for males and 150 to 300 Hz for females. Additional acoustic features we utilize are the range of formants and the degree of "breathiness," which are based on the biological differences in the vocal tract length and in the muscle strength around the glottis between sexes. Yet, those features are not definitive, either. The boundary between man and woman is more psychological than physical.